IMK Duana1, NM Kurniati2, KRA Dewi2, IAAM Cempaka2, D Kusuma3, NK Noriani4
1School of Public Health, Faculty of Medicine, Udayana University, 2Udayana Center for NCDs, Tobacco Control and Lung Health (Udayana CENTRAL), 3Centre for Health Economics and Policy Innovations, Imperial College Business School, 4Institute of Technology and Health Bali
Background: West Nusa Tenggara Province is the second largest tobacco farm throughout Indonesia after East Java Province. Tobacco control especially in an effort to reduce tobacco farmer business is considered to be detrimental to farmers, as it has been argued to debilitate tobacco farmers’ welfare. In fact, data shows that tobacco exports are much smaller than imports, because cigarette industry can get cheaper prices from other countries. That actually impoverishes tobacco farmers. To the present, there is no measure known (using a sample representative) what proportion of tobacco farmers in Indonesia who want to convert to other crops. Previous studies generally only used a purposive sampling technique that could not be generalized to the provincial or national level.
Objective: This study aims to obtain the information of tobacco farmers’ willingness to convert into other crops using sample representatives in West Nusa Tenggara (NTB) Province. The study also conduct in-depth interviews with agricultural and economic/business experts regarding which crops are the best in agriculture and economy to be planted in NTB. The three sources of information, namely farmers, agricultural experts, and economists will provide comprehensive information related to tobacco conversion policies in Indonesia.
Methods: This is a mixed methods study using quantitative and qualitative approaches. Quantitative approach was survey a representative sample of 250 tobacco farmers using multistage sampling. Qualitative approach was interview using structured questionnaire and in-depth interview guidelines. Data analysed using statistical software Stata and content analysis software NVIVO.
Result: The study was conducted in two districts in NTB, namely Central Lombok and East Lombok Regencies. The sample is reached by taking a sample based on data from tobacco farmer groups spread in Terara Village and Montong Gamang Village. Most farmers have a tendency to convert tobacco plants. From an economic and agricultural perspective, tobacco farming is no more profitable than other agricultural businesses. The hesitation of farmers to convert tobacco plants is due to concerns about starting up and the environment, which is generally mostly still running tobacco farming.
Recomendation: The national and subnational is expected to be able to facilitate the willingness of farmers to convert tobacco plants through providing information and assistance when the process of crop conversion is carried out.
Keywords: Tobacco Farmers, Conversion of Tobacco Farm, Nusa Tenggara Barat